Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judaea in the days of Herod the king, behold, there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem,
2 Saying, Where is he that is born King of the Jews? for we have seen his star in the east, and are come to worship him.
3 When Herod the king had heard these things, he was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him.
4 And when he had gathered all the chief priests and scribes of the people together, he demanded of them where Christ should be born.
5 And they said unto him, In Bethlehem of Judaea: for thus it is written by the prophet,
6 And thou Bethlehem, in the land of Juda, art not the least among the princes of Juda: for out of thee shall come a Governor, that shall rule my people Israel.
7 Then Herod, when he had privily called the wise men, enquired of them diligently what time the star appeared.
8 And he sent them to Bethlehem, and said, Go and search diligently for the young child; and when ye have found him, bring me word again, that I may come and worship him also.
9 When they had heard the king, they departed; and, lo, the star, which they saw in the east, went before them, till it came and stood over where the young child was.
10 When they saw the star, they rejoiced with exceeding great joy.
11 And when they were come into the house, they saw the young child with Mary his mother, and fell down, and worshipped him: and when they had opened their treasures, they presented unto him gifts; gold, and frankincense, and myrrh.
12 And being warned of God in a dream that they should not return to Herod, they departed into their own country another way.
13 And when they were departed, behold, the angel of the Lord appeareth to Joseph in a dream, saying, Arise, and take the young child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and be thou there until I bring thee word: for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him.
14 When he arose, he took the young child and his mother by night, and departed into Egypt:
15 And was there until the death of Herod: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying, Out of Egypt have I called my son.
16 Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked of the wise men, was exceeding wroth, and sent forth, and slew all the children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof, from two years old and under, according to the time which he had diligently enquired of the wise men.
17 Then was fulfilled that which was spoken by Jeremy the prophet, saying,
18 In Rama was there a voice heard, lamentation, and weeping, and great mourning, Rachel weeping for her children, and would not be comforted, because they are not.
19 But when Herod was dead, behold, an angel of the Lord appeareth in a dream to Joseph in Egypt,
20 Saying, Arise, and take the young child and his mother, and go into the land of Israel: for they are dead which sought the young child's life.
21 And he arose, and took the young child and his mother, and came into the land of Israel.
22 But when he heard that Archelaus did reign in Judaea in the room of his father Herod, he was afraid to go thither: notwithstanding, being warned of God in a dream, he turned aside into the parts of Galilee:
23 And he came and dwelt in a city called Nazareth: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets, He shall be called a Nazarene.
Roman-appointed king of Judaea (37–4 BC)
Killed all male children 2 years and under
* We know that Jesus was born during King Herod's reign. He died in 4 BC. Therefore Jesus was born at least in 4 BC.
* The Bible tells us that King Herod killed all the male children 2 years old and under per the wise men's declaration of when they seen the star. This is at least 2 years before King Herod died. Therefore, Jesus had to have been born at least in 6 BC.
* Scripture then tells us that Joseph took Mary and Jesus into Egypt to live for an unspecified time period.
So far we have ascertained that Jesus Christ was born at least in 6 BC.
The reign of king Archelaus in Judaea
And the child grew, and waxed strong in spirit, filled with wisdom: and the grace of God was upon him.
41 Now his parents went to Jerusalem every year at the feast of the passover.
42 And when he was twelve years old, they went up to Jerusalem after the custom of the feast.
43 And when they had fulfilled the days, as they returned, the child Jesus tarried behind in Jerusalem; and Joseph and his mother knew not of it.
44 But they, supposing him to have been in the company, went a day's journey; and they sought him among their kinsfolk and acquaintance.
45 And when they found him not, they turned back again to Jerusalem, seeking him.
46 And it came to pass, that after three days they found him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the doctors, both hearing them, and asking them questions.
47 And all that heard him were astonished at his understanding and answers.
48 And when they saw him, they were amazed: and his mother said unto him, Son, why hast thou thus dealt with us? behold, thy father and I have sought thee sorrowing.
49 And he said unto them, How is it that ye sought me? wist ye not that I must be about my Father's business?
50 And they understood not the saying which he spake unto them.
51 And he went down with them, and came to Nazareth, and was subject unto them: but his mother kept all these sayings in her heart.
52 And Jesus increased in wisdom and stature, and in favour with God and man.
Roman-appointed king of Judaea (4 BC - 6 AD)
* Josephreturned with his family to Judaea after King Herod's death but was afraid because his son, Archelaus reigned in his stead.
Matthew 2:22 But when he heard that Archelaus did reign in Judaea in the room of his father Herod, he was afraid to go thither: notwithstanding, being warned of God in a dream, he turned aside into the parts of Galilee
Notice the specific wordage spoken in the upper verse of Luke 2:41:
41 Now his parents went to Jerusalem every year at the feast of the passover.
Only his parents went to Jerusalem every year for the feast of Passover. They protected Jesus by not bringing Him to the Passover year after year.
* But something immediately changes in the next verse:
Luke 2:42 And when he was twelve years old, they went up to Jerusalem after the custom of the feast.
Why was Jesus now allowed to go up to Jerusalem with his parents to celebrate the feast? What changed? We know from history that king Archelaus ceased to reign over Judaea midway through 6 AD. Therefore it was now safe for Jesus to enter Jerusalem.
When did this occur? When He was 12 years old. So Jesus was 12 years old in the year 6 AD. If we go back 12 years to when He was born, that gives us the date of 7 BC. Remember there is no year "0", therefore we must subtract a year. So, 6 AD + 7 BC = 13 - 1 = 12 years old.
Jesus was born in the fall. Most probably on October 2nd (Day of Atonement). So, the next Passover Feast that he was able to attend was the spring of 7AD. Jesus was 12 years old at the 7AD Passover.
We now know how long Joseph, Mary and Jesus lived within Egypt. This unspecified time period was 1 year.
Jesus was born in 7 BC.
The evidence of the year Jesus was born
The Lord has graciously given us multiple proofs of evidence declaring in what year Jesus the Messiah was born. From the decree of taxation from Caesar Augustus, the rule of Cyrenius governor of Syria, the reign of the puppet king Herod in Jerusalem and the date of his death, the killing of all male children of 2 years and under, the start and ending reign of his son Archelaus, and the course of Abia of Zacharias the priest.
We will make a simple conclusion of 7B.C. with only 2 of the proofs listed above.
7 BC + 6 AD = 13 - 1 = 12 years old!
* Another point of interest is the fact that 7BC was also a 50 Jubilee year. Which signifies the release and freedom of all debt and slaves.
Jesus partakes in His first Feast of Passover in 7AD at age 12.